Elephants are among the most unique and charismatic mammals that inhabit the Asian jungle. They are both biologically and culturally important animal of Asia, which share an integral part of the religion and culture of most of the Asian countries from historical times. They are distributed in south and south-east Asian under the Biodiversity Hotspots like - the Western Ghats in Southern India, the Eastern Himalayas, Northern Myanmar, Yunnan in South China, the rain forests of Sumatra, peninsular Malaysia & Borneo and the tropical forests along the borders of Laos & Vietnam. Thus conservation of the Asian Elephant is equally helpful in the conservation of the overall biodiversity of a particular area, making it as a flagship species, whose survival also ensure the survival of a variety of other flora and fauna automatically. The total estimated population of Asian elephant currently living the jungles of Asian countries is somewhere between 35000-50000 and another about 15000 animals are in captivity.
But, this fascinating mammal all over its range of distribution in the wild is now facing extinction due to rapid shrinkage of their habitat and increasing Human Elephant Conflict. Habitat shrinkage made them compelled to come out to human habitation areas for food and water and also to perform the traditional migratory behavior for breeding and other purposes resulting conflict. A significant portion of the total deaths of Asian elephant occurs because of human-elephant conflicts. The growing conflict between humans and elephants is one of the most urgent challenges and is one of the highest conservation priorities.
The North Eastern region of India is one of the pristine habitats for the Asian elephants. It is considered as biodiversity hotspot and comes under the Eastern Himalaya Eco-region complex. A significantly large population of Asian Elephants occurs in the region. The total estimated population of Asian elephant in the entire Northeast region is in between 7000-7500 in wild, of which Assam shares major portion of about 3200 elephants. But in this entire habitat area the elephant have become highly threatened because of rapid shrinkage of habitat, poaching and most importantly the ever-increasing human-elephant conflict. As result the species become discontinuously distributed. Rapid shrinkage of habitat has fragmented the elephant population of the entire area, which not only exposed the animals to the risk of being killed by human being, but also have exposed the human population to large scale confrontation with settlement coming on their way of movement.
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